The Catholic Church has in recent decades been associated with opposition to the death penalty. It was not always so. This timely work recovers, and calls for a revival of, the Catholic tradition of support for capital punishment. Drawing on a wealth of philosophical, scriptural, theological, and social scientific arguments, the authors show that is is the perennial and irreformable teaching of the Church that capital punishment can in principle be legitimate–not only to protect society from physical danger, but also for purposes such as retributive justice and deterrence. Paper.